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Newsgroups: comp.bugs.2bsd Path: euryale.cc.adfa.oz.au!newshost.anu.edu.au!newshost.telstra.net!act.news.telstra.net!psgrain!news.uoregon.edu!news.dacom.co.kr!usenet.seri.re.kr!news.cais.net!news.jsums.edu!gatech!newsfeed.internetmci.com!in2.uu.net!citicorp.com!news.new-york.net!wlbr!sms From: firstname.lastname@example.org (Steven M. Schultz) Subject: Re: ld failure while rebuild 2.11BSD kernel Sender: email@example.com (System Administrator) Organization: GTE Government Systems, Thousand Oaks CA USA Message-ID: <Dn7pAz.Dtn@wlbr.iipo.gtegsc.com> References: <firstname.lastname@example.org> X-Nntp-Posting-Host: wlv.iipo.gtegsc.com Date: Fri, 23 Feb 1996 04:47:23 GMT Lines: 202 In article <email@example.com>, Bob Armstrong <firstname.lastname@example.org> wrote: > I am using a 11/73 running the as distributed GENERIC 2.11BSD system, >and I'd like to build a new kernel. So far I've tried to duplicate the >GENERIC and NONET kernels using the configuration files distributed >(this is just as a test to make sure I have all the parts I need to >build my own customized kernel). In each case everything compiles OK, >but the link fails with: > > ld: too big for type 431 > > Could someone interpret this message for me ? > >Thanks, >Bob This may be of some help - I typed it up the last time the same question was asked. RSH (Real Soon Now;-)) this is going into the setup&installation documentation - I just haven't gotten around to it (a 'round tuit'?) yet. Steven Schultz email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org ------------------ > The Makefile proceeds without errors until the final (massive) link run. > Then it says: > too big for type 431 > and exits code 2. > I tried playing with Makefile, deleted some modules, like the rk, which > I do not have, and moved a couple around. Same result. > Obviously I'm new at this. Any assistance appreciated. This is not unexpected. In fact I was placing bets with myself as to when the first person would encounter the 'too big' message ;-) As distributed only the GENERIC kernel is guaranteed to configure and build without errors. What to do when the linker complains about the size of a kernel is not covered in the documentation - sorry 'bout that, perhaps I'll take the mini-tutorial below and add it to the setup documentation some day. As a bit of background here is what goes on when a kernel is configured: cd /sys/conf cp GENERIC PICKLE vi PICKLE ... turn on/off desired featuers,drivers,etc ... ./config PICKLE At this point the 'config' script creates the directory /sys/PICKLE and populates it with various .h files describing what devices are present and so on. Also copied into /sys/PICKLE are the various _prototype_ Makefiles: Makefile, Make.pdp, Make.pdpuba, etc. Of these makefiles you are only concerned with "Makefile" - the others should almost _never_ be edited. cd ../PICKLE make ld: too big for type 431 First - what does that message mean? '431' is the magic number for a split I/D overlaid executable. Kernels are *always* split I/D and overlaid. The 'too big' part of the message means that the base segment and/or one of the overlays is larger than allowed. What are the limits on the sizes (I hear you ask)? Kernels are a special case of overlaid program (user mode programs may be overlaid too but have less restrictive size rules). The BASE segment (non-overlaid portion) may be up to 56kb (57344) bytes in size. In the case of the kernel the base segment must be a minimum of 48kb (this is not hard to do). User mode overlays do not have the minimum size restriction. Each of the 15 (maximum) overlays (OV1 thru OV15) may be up to 8kb (8192) bytes. When 'ld' gives you a "too big" message the first thing you should do is: size unix.o That will produce something similar to: text data bss dec hex 58304 7778 41206 107288 1a318 total text: 119360 overlays: 8192,6976,7680,7616,8000,7872,7680,7040 As we see the base segment is over 57344. To reduce the base we must move one of the files from the BASE group to one of the OV groups. Which one? It is not critical but a the general rule is: The smallest one which will solve the problem. It is perfectly ok to put device drivers in overlays - especially disk drivers which tend to move large chunks of data per interrupt or call. It is desireable to keep terminal drivers in the base but nothing bad will happen if you need to put one (such as dh.o) into an overlay. Next, look in the Makefile at the line starting with "BASE=" and do: a "size " command on all the files listed in the BASE section. How much do we need to reduce the base? 58304 - 57344 = 960. So, we need to find a .o (or more than one - it's the total of sizes that counts) in the BASE that is >= 960 bytes of text. In my kernel the overlay description looks like this: BASE= br.o cons.o dh.o dhu.o dhv.o dr.o dz.o hk.o ht.o init_sysent.o \ kern_clock.o kern_descrip.o kern_mman.o kern_proc.o kern_prot.o \ kern_subr.o kern_synch.o machdep.o ram.o kern_fork.o \ rk.o ra.o rx.o si.o subr_rmap.o sys_inode.o sys_kern.o \ tm.o tty.o tty_conf.o tty_subr.o tty_tb.o ufs_alloc.o \ ufs_bio.o ufs_dsort.o ufs_fio.o ufs_inode.o ufs_namei.o \ vm_sched.o vm_text.o xp.o quota_subr.o OV1= sys_generic.o ufs_syscalls.o OV2= kern_acct.o kern_exec.o kern_exit.o kern_resource.o OV3= kern_time.o sys_process.o ufs_mount.o ufs_subr.o \ uipc_syscalls.o OV4= dkbad.o kern_sig.o mem.o subr_xxx.o trap.o tty_pty.o tty_tty.o OV5= quota_kern.o quota_ufs.o quota_sys.o ufs_bmap.o \ sys_pipe.o # OV6 gets the (hopefully) never used routines OV6= clock.o dn.o init_main.o kern_pdp.o machdep2.o subr_prf.o syscalls.o \ subr_log.o toy.o vm_swap.o OV7= tmscp.o lp.o vm_swp.o rl.o mch_fpsim.o ts.o OV8= kern_sysctl.o ingreslock.o ufs_disksubr.o kern_xxx.o vm_proc.o We see that size kern_subr.o ufs_dsort.o gives text data bss 820 34 0 272 0 0 820 + 272 = 1092 58304 - 1092 = 57212 which is great! It's below 57344. So, we've found the .o files which when moved to an overlay will generate a valid kernel. Where should we put it? Well - OV2 looks a little small, is there room there? 8192-6976=1216. Yes, there is room. So, the kern_subr.o and ufs_dsort.o files are removed from the BASE section and added to OV2: BASE= br.o cons.o dh.o dhu.o dhv.o dr.o dz.o hk.o ht.o init_sysent.o \ kern_clock.o kern_descrip.o kern_mman.o kern_proc.o kern_prot.o \ kern_synch.o machdep.o ram.o kern_fork.o \ rk.o ra.o rx.o si.o subr_rmap.o sys_inode.o sys_kern.o \ tm.o tty.o tty_conf.o tty_subr.o tty_tb.o ufs_alloc.o \ ufs_bio.o ufs_fio.o ufs_inode.o ufs_namei.o \ vm_sched.o vm_text.o xp.o quota_subr.o OV2= kern_acct.o kern_exec.o kern_exit.o kern_resource.o kern_subr.o \ ufs_dsort.o Then exit the editor and type "make". And voila - no error and doing "size unix" yields: text data bss dec hex 57280 7778 41206 106264 19f18 total text: 119424 overlays: 8192,8064,7680,7616,8000,7872,7680,7040 Perfect! *NEVER* simply delete files from the Makefile! If you did not select a device in the config file - the .o is 0 bytes in size. If for example you do not have an RK05 configured do a "size rk.o" and you will see that it is "0 0 0". The .o is only 16 bytes long. That is why you won't notice any difference when moving/deleting some files - they don't have anything in them. REMEMBER: "size" is your friend when adjusting overlays - get to know and trust him. NOTE: There are some .o files which *must not* be moved out of the base segment. These are identified as such in the Makefile. NOTE: You can not have any gaps in the overlays. This means that there can not be a 0 length (empty) overlay between two populated overlays. The last overlay used may be empty. IF all the overlays are full - then add OV7, OV8, OV9, etc lines (up to OV15) as needed and put .o files in them. The Makefile will use the new OV lines automatically. I hope this makes things a little bit clearer for anyone building a 2.11BSD kernel.